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  1. 11-12-08 16:46 #31
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    ρε λαιν κανε κοπυ παστε την ερευνα ποιος εχει ορεξη να κατεβαζει απο ραπιντ

    τουλαχιστον την περιληψη


    παλι καλα κανει κατι η καρνιτινη χαχαχα να δουμε και για γραμμωση αυτες τις ερευνες που δηχνουν οτι χανεις χωρις να κανεις τιποτα απο 1 κιλο την εβδομαδα με την ιδια διατροφη ............................. αχχαχα πλακα κανω δεν θα υπαρξει
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  2. 11-12-08 16:54 #32
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    Published online June 10, 2005 # Springer-Verlag 2005

    Summary. Early research investigating the effects of L-carnitine supplementation has examined its
    role in substrate metabolism and in acute exercise performance. These studies have yielded equivocal
    findings, partially due to difficulties in increasing muscle carnitine concentrations. However, recent
    studies have proposed that L-carnitine may play a different role in exercise physiology, and preliminary
    results have been encouraging. Current investigations have theorized that L-carnitine supplementation
    facilitates exercise recovery. Proposed mechanism is as follows: 1) increased serum carnitine concentration enhances capillary endothelial function; 2) increased blood flow and reduced hypoxia mitigate
    the cascade of ensuing, destructive chemical events following exercise; 3) thus allowing reduced
    structural damage of skeletal muscle mediated by more intact receptors in muscle needed for improved
    protein signaling. This paradigm explains decreased markers of purine catabolism, free radical formation, and muscle tissue disruption after resistance exercise and the increased repair of muscle proteins
    following long-term L-carnitine supplementation.

    Keywords. Amino acids; Exercise recovery; Hormones; Metabolism; Skeletal muscle.

    Introduction

    Carnitine (L-3-hydroxytrimethylaminobutanoate) is a naturally occurring compound that can be synthesized in mammals from the essential amino acids lysine
    and methionine [1] or ingested through diet. Primary sources of dietary carnitine
    are red meat and dairy products; however, commercially-produced supplements are
    also available and have been shown to be safe in humans [2]. Carnitine is stored
    primarily in skeletal muscle, but is also found in plasma (although in much smaller
    concentrations) [3]. Biologically, carnitine is essential for the transport of longchain (carbon chain length 10) fatty acids across the outer-and inner-mitochondrial membranes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II, respectively). Based on

    . Corresponding author. E-mail: William.Kraemer@uconn.edu

    W. J. Kraemer et al.
    this function, early work investigating the effects of carnitine focused on the paradigm that carnitine supplementation would enhance skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations and increase transport (and thus oxidation) of fatty acids. Studies
    investigating this mechanism of action have yielded conflicting results. More
    recent studies, however, have focused on a different paradigm: carnitine’s ability
    to reduce hypoxic stress and enhance recovery from exercise, which will be the
    focus of this review.

    Early Research: Carnitine Supplementation and Fat Metabolism

    A justification for carnitine supplementation in athletes was provided by Arenas
    et al. [4]. Researchers investigated the effects of physical training (6 months) on
    carnitine metabolism in sprinters and endurance runners. Participants were supplemented with either L-carnitine (2 g day1 orally) or placebo (P) for the duration of

    the study. Athletes receiving P had significantly less muscle carnitine following 6
    months of training; alternately, those athletes receiving L-carnitine had a significant
    increase in muscle carnitine following training plus supplementation. Although
    performance was not measured in this study, the authors hypothesized that 1) reduced muscle carnitine following training could reduce fatty acid metabolism;
    and 2) carnitine supplementation during training could negate the decline in
    (or even enhance) fatty acid metabolism.

    Investigations of carnitine’s effects on acute exercise performance have examined various endpoints, including fat oxidation, aerobic capacity (VO2max), lactate,
    and physical performance. These studies have shown equivocal findings in response to various doses and durations of carnitine supplementation (see Table 1).
    Some of these studies have shown no increase in muscle carnitine concentrations
    [5, 6], which would explain the lack of significant findings on exercise metabolism.

    A New Paradigm for Carnitine

    A new line of research in the area of L-carnitine and exercise has recently evolved.
    Studies have indicated that a novel role for L-carnitine may reside in its ability to
    optimize recovery from the hypoxic effects of exercise [7]. Exercise places physiological stress on the body derived from two different stimuli: 1) immediately,

    Table 1. Acute effects of L-carnitine supplementation on exercise

    Endpoint Finding References
    Fat metabolism Increase [30]
    No change [6, 31–34]
    VO2max Increase [31, 35, 36]
    No change [37]
    Lactate Decrease [36, 38]
    No change [5, 32, 34, 37, 39, 40]
    Exercise performance Increase [35]
    No change [39, 40]


    L-Carnitine and Exercise Recovery

    the mechanical forces associated with exercise cause cellular structural damage;
    and 2) subsequently, chemical responses related to muscle damage and the tissue
    repair process cause tissue alterations that can be observed for up to ten days postexercise.

    Mechanical stress to muscle tissue is primarily mediated by the intensity of the
    eccentric muscle actions (muscle lengthening under force). Loading that is greater
    than concentric (muscle shortening) maximal strength (e.g., lowering weights with
    105–120% of the weight that can be raised) can lead to significant damage to
    contractile units. The mechanical stress of such overload can create muscle tissue
    damage and produce dramatic deformation in the geometrical organization of
    muscle fibers sarcomeres [8]. Such damage can be significant, if not injurious,
    due to the loss of the structural integrity and contractile function [9]. Under such
    conditions, the structure of the circulatory vessels is altered by changes in capillary
    luminal shapes and areas [10].

    Whereas most exercise results in some disruption of muscle fibers due to
    mechanical stress, chemical factors associated with exercise stress can result in
    more long term dysfunction due to free radical scavenging, which can continue to
    degrade tissue structures over the recovery period of 5 to 10 days [11, 12]. This
    problem is exacerbated by the increased release of cortisol, which has negative
    effects on immune cell activation. These chemical responses to the mechanical
    stress of exercises cause physical performance decrements and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) [13].

    A new role of L-carnitine may rest in its ability to reduce chemical damage to
    tissues and help the process of muscle tissue repair and remodeling. Potentially, Lcarnitine may improve blood flow during and following exercise, and optimize the
    signals supporting tissue repair processes. Over the past several years, we have
    investigated this theoretical potential and developed a new paradigm for the use of
    L-carnitine in exercise.

    Reduction of Tissue Hypoxia and Free Radical Damage

    Figure 1 shows the underlying components of our paradigm. Independent of
    mechanical damage, exercise results in breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
    (ATP), accumulation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) within the smooth muscle
    of the pre-capillary sphincter (Fig. 1, #1a), and activation of the enzyme adenylate
    kinase (Fig. 1, #1b). Adenylate kinase then catalyzes the formation of ATP and
    adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from two molecules of ADP (Fig. 1, #1c). Accumulation of AMP leads to the formation of hypoxanthine that diffuses out of the
    capillary endothelial cell. Hypoxia induced by exercise (Fig. 1, #2a) also causes a
    mismatch between ATP supply and demand resulting in the malfunction of ATPdependent calcium pumps (Fig. 1, #2b) and intracellular accumulation of calcium.

    The increase in intracellular calcium activates calcium-dependent proteases
    (Fig. 1, #2c) that lead to the proteolytic cleavage of a portion of xanthine dehydrogenase converting it to xanthine oxidase (Fig. 1, #2d) [14]. Recent work by
    Hellsten et al. [15] provides evidence for an increase in xanthine oxidase in human
    vascular cells of skeletal muscle following exercise. Xanthine oxidase then catalyzes the formation of xanthine from hypoxanthine (Fig. 1, #3a) and converts it to


    W. J. Kraemer et al.
    Fig. 1. Theoretical paradigm for the role of L-carnitine in exercise recovery; numbers indicate areas
    of recent or current research; see text for details

    uric acid (Fig. 1, #3b). These reactions utilize molecular oxygen as an electron
    acceptor and form a superoxide radical (Fig. 1, #3c). The superoxide radical can
    combine with iron and form reactive hydroxy radicals that attack polyunsaturated
    fatty acids in cell membranes (Fig. 1, #4). This attack initiates a chain of lipid
    peroxidation reactions.

    Lipid peroxidation results in the formation of numerous aldehydes of different
    chain lengths, such as the 3-carbon product malondialdehyde (MDA) (Fig. 1, #5).
    MDA is thus used as a plasma marker of free radical damage. The disruption to the
    cell membrane results in leakage of cytosolic proteins such as creatine kinase (CK)
    (Fig. 1, #6). Finally, superoxide radicals also form intermediates (Fig. 1, #7a) that
    attract neutrophils (Fig. 1, #7b), furthering membrane disruption.

    L-Carnitine may have a role in reducing the hypoxic stress of tissues. Studies
    have attempted to show that L-carnitine has vasodilation properties. Ischemia in
    endothelial cells can result in carnitine release, increased oxidative stress, and compromised blood flow [16]. These responses can be ameliorated by carnitine administration [17].

    Incorporating this theory into an exercise model, Giamberadino et al. [18],
    demonstrated that 3 grams of L-carnitine day1 for 3 weeks attenuated eccentric

    exercise-induced. This was evidenced by reduced creatine kinase concentrations
    (a marker of sarcolemmal damage) and subjective indicators of muscle pain and
    tenderness. The authors suggested that L-carnitine enhanced oxygen availability,


    L-Carnitine and Exercise Recovery

    which subsequently attenuated the accumulation of free radicals that is common
    after exercise stress. From these suggestions, we have developed our model for the
    role of L-carnitine in recovery following exercise.

    Our research group recently tested this paradigm by examining the influence of
    L-CARNIPURE+ , L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT), on markers of purine catabolism,
    free radical formation, and muscle tissue disruption after resistance exercise [7].
    Using a balanced, crossover design (1 wk washout), ten resistance-trained men
    consumed a placebo or LCLT supplement (2 g L-carnitine day1) for three weeks.

    Blood samples were obtained on six consecutive days (D1 to D6). On D2, subjects
    reported to the laboratory for pre-exercise blood draws, a hypoxic back squat
    protocol (5 sets of 15–20 repetitions at 50% one-repetition maximum), and serial
    post-exercise blood draws. Muscle tissue damage at the mid-thigh was assessed
    using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to exercise (D1) and following
    exercise (D3 and D6). Exercise-induced increases in plasma markers of purine
    catabolism (hypoxanthine, xanthine oxidase, and serum uric acid) and circulating
    cytosolic proteins (myoglobin, fatty acid binding protein, and CK) were significantly ( p<0.05) attenuated by LCLT. Similarly, exercise-induced increases in
    plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT supplementation compared to placebo. The amount of muscle disruption assessed via
    MRI was 41–45% lower following LCLT than placebo supplementation.

    These data indicated that LCLT supplementation was effective in enhancing
    exercise recovery and mediating muscle damage, and therefore supported our
    experimental paradigm for the role of L-carnitine in exercise recovery. The supplementation regimen used in this study (2 g L-carnitine day1 for three weeks)

    resulted in increased serum carnitine concentrations [7]. We propose that enhanced
    serum carnitine leads to accumulation within endothelial cells and enhanced
    (directly or indirectly) vasodilation of the capillary vessel. The subsequent increase
    in blood flow and delivery of oxygen to muscle tissue may reduce the magnitude of
    exercise-induced hypoxia and thus attenuate the cascade of events that lead to free
    radical formation and membrane disruption.

    Hormones in the Recovery Process Paradigm

    A host of hormones are involved with the signaling of protein synthesis and
    immune cell function following tissue damage. The mechanisms by which such
    signals are involved remain a topic of current research. Primary anabolic hormones
    are growth hormone(s), growth factors, and androgens, which have all been viewed
    as potential players in the normal exercise recovery process. In addition, cortisol
    has been cast as an important hormone in the repair process due to 1) its role in
    contractile protein breakdown in attempt to spare muscle glycogen and 2) its
    negative effects on immune cell activation during the inflammatory process.

    Previous research has investigated L-carnitine’s influence on hormonal responses to physical stress. Uptake of carnitine occurs in the central nervous system

    [19] and the testes [20]. Studies have indicated that carnitine is involved in the
    central (hypothalamic=pituitary) regulation and peripheral (testes) production of
    testosterone. At the level of the hypothalamus, carnitine has been shown to restore
    lutenizing hormone pulsatility and gonadal function in those with hypothalamic

    W. J. Kraemer et al.
    disorder [21]. Furthermore, supplementation stimulated in vitro K.-induced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus [22, 23]. In the testes,
    carnitine may be involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria and=or
    serve as an energy substrate [24]. Thus, L-carnitine could be influencing recovery,
    from brain-level signaling processes to substrate availability and transport in the
    testes [25].

    Direct influence of L-carnitine on stress=recovery responses has been investigated. In rats exposed to chronic intermittent cold-water swimming, supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine mediated the decline in testosterone observed
    following P supplementation [26]. L-Carnitine could help mediate enhanced tissue
    repair following exercise due to improvement of blood flow.

    We [27] examined the influence of LCLT supplementation on the normal
    tissue repair recovery response signals (i.e., testosterone [T], immunofunctional
    and immunoreactive growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], and
    insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3]) to acute resistance exercise using a balanced, cross-over, placebo-controlled research design. Ten healthy,
    recreationally weight-trained men volunteered and were matched for body size and
    strength. After 3 weeks of supplementation (2 g d1 LCLT or P), fasting morning

    blood samples were obtained on six consecutive days (D1–D6). On D2, participants performed the same squat protocol as used previously in our laboratory
    (5 sets of 15–20 repetitions). Blood samples were obtained before exercise and 0,
    15, 30, 120, and 180 minutes post-exercise. After a 1-week washout period, participants then consumed the other supplement for a 3-week period, and the same
    experimental protocol was repeated. Similar to our previous research [7], LCLT
    reduced the amount of exercise-induced muscle tissue damage assessed via MRI of
    the thigh. Exercise induced increases in GH, IGFBP-3, and T. LCLT supplementation significantly ( p<0.05) increased IGFBP-3 concentrations prior to and at 30,
    120, and 180 minutes after acute exercise. No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed in absolute concentrations of the hormones examined.
    Blood flow enhancement to tissues may help mediate quicker recovery following
    exercise stress.

    In a recent meeting [28] we presented the first evidence that LCLT supplementation by improving blood flow under hypoxic conditions may enhance recovery at
    the level of the tissue receptor (e.g., androgen receptor (AR). The combination of
    food ingestion as well as LCLT enhanced recovery of muscle per our improved
    blood flow mechanisms allowing greater interactions with protein repair mechanisms [29]. These results did provide some initial indications that repair of muscle
    tissue via improved blood flow, reduced free radicals, and more intact tissue aids
    recovery and was enhanced by LCLT supplementation.

    The timing of increased protein synthesis via intake of nutrients may well be
    linked to the interface of optimal use of LCLT supplementation. With the use of
    such supplementation each day concomitant with meals and physical training,
    LCLT appeared to augment recovery response of muscle at rest and may be important during physical training or periods of high activity in an active lifestyle.
    Nevertheless, such data has started to shed light on the interaction of LCLT with
    the recovery process of which nutrient intake and protein synthesis are intimately
    involved.


    L-Carnitine and Exercise Recovery

    Summary

    The role of L-carnitine in the recovery process from exercise is a new paradigm for
    the study of this chemical compound. L-Carnitine’s impact on hypoxia related
    tissue damage has opened an innovative area of study. Future research may have
    an impact not only on our understanding of exercise-induced damage and repair
    processes, but also other physiological challenges, from surgery to spaceflight, in
    which recovery plays an important role. The physiological roles of L-carnitine
    related to exercise recovery remains an exciting new vista for further investigation.

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    [10] Kano Y, Sampei K, Matsudo H (2004) Acta Physiol Scand 180: 291
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    [12] Tegeder L, Zimmermann J, Meller ST, Geisslinger G (2002) Inflamm Res 51: 393
    [13] Appell HJ, Soares JM, Duarte JA (1992) Sports Med 13: 108
    [14] McCord MM (1986) Adv Free Rad Biol Med 2: 325
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    [16] Hulsmann WC, Dubelaar ML (1992) Mol Cell Biochem 116: 125
    [17] Dubelaar ML, Lucas CMHB, Hulsmann WC (1991) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 260: E189
    [18] Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, Di Lisa F, Saggini R, Vecchiet L (1996) Int J Sports
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    [19] Burlina AP, Sershen H, Debler EA, Lajtha A (1989) Neurochem Res 14: 489
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    [21] Genazzani AD, Petraglia F, Algeri I, Gastaldi M, Calvani M, Botticelli G, Genazzani AR (1991)
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    [22] Krsmanovic LZ, Virmani MA, Stojilkovic SS, Catt KJ (1992) J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 43:
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    [23] Krsmanovic LZ, Virmani MA, Stojilkovic SS, Catt KJ (1994) Neurosci Lett 165:33
    [24] Bruns KA, Casillas ER (1989) Biol Reprod 41: 218
    [25] Kraemer WJ (1992) Hormonal mechanisms related to the expression of muscular strength and
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    [26] Bidzinska B, Petraglia F, Angioni S, Genazzani AD, Criscuolo M, Ficarra G, Gallinelli A,
    Trentini GP, Genazzani AR (1993) Neuroendocrinology 57: 985
    [27] Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, French DN, Rubin MR, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Newton
    RU, Jemiolo B, Craig BW, Hakkinen K (2003) J Strength Cond Res 17: 455

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    [28] Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, VanHeest JL, Sharman MJ, Rubin MR, Ratamess NA, Spiering BA,
    French DN, Vescovi JD, Gomez AL, Judelson DA, Silvestre R, Hatfield DL, Gaynor P, Maresh
    CM (2004) Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on testosterone and muscle
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    [29] Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Bush JA, Putukian M, Sebastianelli WJ (1998) J Appl Physiol 85: 1544
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    Bach AC (1988) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 58:53
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    [36] Vecchiet L, Di Lisa F, Pieralisi G, Ripari P, Menabo R, Giamberardino MA, Siliprandi N (1990)
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    Occup Physiol 56: 457
    [38] Siliprandi N, Di Lisa F, Pieralisi G, Ripari P, Maccari F, Menabo R, Giamberardino MA, Vecchiet
    L (1990) Biochim Biophys Acta 1034:17
    [39] Trappe SW, Costill DL, Goodpaster B, Vukovich MD, Fink WJ (1994) Int J Sports Med 15: 181
    [40] Colombani P, Wenk C, Kunz I, Krahenbuhl S, Kuhnt M, Arnold M, Frey-Rindova P, Frey W,
    Langhans W (1996) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 73: 434
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  3. 11-12-08 16:57 #33
    away
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    εδω ειμαστε ωραιος παντα τετοια
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  4. 11-12-08 17:01 #34
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    Το avatar του χρήστη Muscleboss

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    θα πρότεινα όταν ανεβάζετε έρευνες, ή να βάζετε μόνο την περίληψη, ή όταν βάζετε όλο το άρθρο να υπογραμμίζετε τα σημεία που είναι σημαντικά για να διαβάσουμε, καθώς πολλοί από εμάς δε θα κάτσουμε να το διαβάσουμε όλο παρά μόνο τα σημεία που είναι σημαντικά.

    anyway, καλός slaine.

    δεν κάθησα να διαβάσω το άρθρο, αλλά από τη στιγμή που είναι αμινοξύ είναι λογικό να βοηθάει στην ανάπτυξη και ανάρρωση...

    ΜΒ
    Παναγιώτης Βίτσας


    Παρακαλώ μη στέλνετε προσωπικά μηνύματα σχετικά με διατροφικές και προπονητικές συμβουλές. Δεν έχω τη δυνατότητα απάντησης. Ευχαριστώ.
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  5. 11-12-08 17:14 #35
    Το avatar του χρήστη tezaman

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    καρνιτιν ιτ ιζ δεν 8)
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  6. 11-12-08 18:33 #36
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    Το avatar του χρήστη Muscleboss

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    Παράθεση Αρχικό μήνυμα απο tezaman
    καρνιτιν ιτ ιζ δεν 8)
    αυτό μόνο ο τεζας μπορει να το γράψει...

    ΜΒ
    Παναγιώτης Βίτσας


    Παρακαλώ μη στέλνετε προσωπικά μηνύματα σχετικά με διατροφικές και προπονητικές συμβουλές. Δεν έχω τη δυνατότητα απάντησης. Ευχαριστώ.
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  7. 11-12-08 18:36 #37
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    ^^γιου γκατ δατ ράιτ
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  8. 11-12-08 20:09 #38
    Το avatar του χρήστη tezaman

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    Παράθεση Αρχικό μήνυμα απο Muscleboss
    Παράθεση Αρχικό μήνυμα απο tezaman
    καρνιτιν ιτ ιζ δεν 8)
    αυτό μόνο ο τεζας μπορει να το γράψει...

    ΜΒ
    Μπός δεν μου έχεις δόση άξες στα ΑΑΣ

    θα είμαι καλό παιδί δεν θα σπαμάρω
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  9. 11-12-08 20:46 #39
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    οχι μη του δωσεις θα καταστρεψει ολα τα τοπικ....!
    καλο ταξιδι Κωστα...Θα μας λειψεις!!
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  10. 11-12-08 20:47 #40
    Το avatar του χρήστη tezaman

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    για εμένα μιλάμε 8)
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  11. 11-12-08 23:32 #41
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    Εσυ για ποιον πιστευεις να λεει?
    Bodybuilding.gr
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  12. 12-12-08 05:03 #42
    Το avatar του χρήστη tezaman

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    για κάνεναν σπάμερ .. KATERINHS144 πχ
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  13. 12-12-08 16:18 #43
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    πωπω καντε ενα ban τον teza καταστρεφει τα τοπικ!!!
    καλο ταξιδι Κωστα...Θα μας λειψεις!!
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  14. 12-12-08 16:40 #44
    Το avatar του χρήστη tezaman

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    είσαι κακός άνθρωπος 8)
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  15. 17-12-08 01:19 #45
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    Ωραία έρευνα !!!

    Πρέπει να έχει κι άλλες το site που τη βρήκες. Μπορείς να δώσεις το link pls;
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